How much drinking by the mother can cause FASD?

There is no known safe amount of alcohol that can be drunk during pregnancy and there is no known safe time during a pregnancy when alcohol can be drunk. The effect will vary depending on the timing and the quantity of alcohol consumed. FASD is more often associated with binge drinking – four or more standard drinks on an occasion – or continuous moderate drinking – two or more drinks. However lesser amounts have been found to adversely affect brain development in subtle ways. Not all children exposed to alcohol are affected to the same degree, which means genetics also have a role. The New Zealand Ministry of Health advises that it is safest not to consume any alcohol during pregnancy.